Manual Therapy, Posturology & Rehabilitation Journal
Manual Therapy, Posturology & Rehabilitation Journal
Research Article

Habitual physical activity is not associated with lower cardiovascular risk profile or higher aerobic fitness

Denis Fabrício Valério, Arthur Fernandes Gáspari, Giovana Vergínea de Souza, Cleiton Augusto Libardi, Claudia Regina Cavaglieri, Mara Patrícia Traina Chacon-Mikahil

Downloads: 0
Views: 335


Introduction: Physical inactivity is considered as one of the factors to increase the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and decrease aerobic fitness mainly in middle-age. Increased habitual physical activity (HPA) is one of the strategies recommended to reduce physical inactivity. However, it is not known whether middle-age individuals who exclusively perform greater amount of HPA have greater aerobic fitness and / or a lower risk of CVDs. Objective: Verify the association between HPA with the risk of CVDs and aerobic fitness in individuals who only perform HPA. Method: We selected 89 male volunteers, age: 47.4 ± 5.06 years, who did not practice systemized physical training. Our measurements were: HPA by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and Baecke questionnaires, the aerobic fitness by direct assessment of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 máx) and the risk of developing cardiovascular disease by the score calculation of General Cardiovascular Risk Profile from Framingham Study. Results: There was no correlation of the HPA level with cardiovascular risk factors, general cardiovascular disease risk and VO2 máx. Moreover, no difference was found between the categorical groups of the IPAQ questionnaire and between the groups, “clusters”, calculated from the Baecke questionnaire scores for the variables of cardiovascular risk, general cardiovascular disease risk and VO2 máx. Conclusion: This study have found that the HPA level of middle-aged men is not associated with lower cardiovascular risk profile or higher aerobic fitness, suggesting that only increase HPA may not be enough to promote beneficial adaptations in aerobic fitness and improve risk profile for CVDs. These results may be related to low volume and intensity of HPA, which reinforces the importance of performing physical training with control of these variables for health promotion.


IPAQ, Baecke, Framingham, physical inactivity


1. Go AS, Mozaffarian D, Roger VL, Benjamin EJ, Berry JD, Borden WB, et al. On behalf of the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee. Heart disease and stroke statistics—2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2013;127:e6-e245.

2. (Accessed: June 26, 2015).

3. Lee IM, Shiroma EJ, Lobelo F, Puska P, Blair SN, Katzmarzyk PT. Effect of physical inactivity on major non-communicable diseases worldwide: an analysis of burden of disease and life expectancy. Lancet. 2012;380:219- 229.

4. Mora S, Cook N, Buring JE, Ridker PM, Lee IM. Physical activity and reduced risk of cardiovascular events: potential mediating mechanisms. Circulation. 2007;116:2110-2118.

5. Hallal PC, Andersen LB, Bull FC, Guthold R, Haskell W, Ekelund U. Global physical activity levels: surveillance progress, pitfalls, and prospects. Lancet. 2012;380:247-257.

6. Spirduso,W. Physical Dimensions of Aging. 1st ed. Champaign: Human Kinetics, 1995.

7. Dvorak RV, Tchernof A, Starling RD, Ades PA, DiPietro L, Poehlman ET. Respiratory fitness, free living physical activity, and cardiovascular disease risk in older individuals: a doubly labeled water study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000;85:957-963.

8. Burich R, Teljigović S, Boyle E, Sjøgaard G. Aerobic training alone or combined with strength training affects fitness in elderly: Randomized trial. Eur J Sport Sci. 2015;15:773-83.

9. Johnson JL, Slentz CA, Houmard JA, et al. Exercise training amount and intensity effects on metabolic syndrome (from Studies of a Targeted Risk Reduction Intervention through Defined Exercise). Am J Cardiol. 2007;100:1759-1766.

10. ACSM Position Stand on The Recommended Quantity and Quality of Exercise for Developing and Maintaining Cardiorespiratory and Muscular Fitness, and Flexibility in Adults. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 1998;30:975-991.

11. Nybo L, Sundstrup E, Jakobsen MD. High-intensity training versus traditional exercise interventions for promoting health. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 2010;42:1951-1958.

12. Booth FW, Roberts CK, Laye MJ. Lack of exercise is a major cause of chronic diseases. Compr Physiol 2012;2:1143-1211.

13. Silva RB, Costa-Paiva L, Pinto Neto AM, Braga AA, Morais SS. Atividade física habitual e risco cardiovascular na pós-menopausa. Revista Associação Médica Brasileira 2006;52:242-246.

14. Wareham NJ, Hennings SJ, Byrne CD, Hales CN, Prentice AM, Day NE. A quantitative analysis of the relationship between habitual energy expenditure, fitness and the metabolic cardiovascular syndrome. Br J Nutr. 1998;80:235-241.

15. Gilliat-Wimberly M, Manore MM, Woolf K, Swan PD, Carroll SS. Effects of habitual physical activity on the resting metabolic rates and body compositions of women aged 35 to 50 years. J Am Diet Assoc. 2001;101:1181-1188.

16. Silva-Batista C, Urso RP, Lima Silva AE, Bertuzzi R. Associations between fitness tests and the international physical activity questionnaire-short form in healthy men. J Strength Cond Res. 2013;27:3481-3487.

17. Park MS, Chung SY, Chang Y, Kim K. Physical activity and physical fitness as predictors of all-cause mortality in korean men. J Korean Med Sci. 2009;24:13-19.

18. Matsudo S, Araujo T, Matsudo V, Andrade D et al. Questionário Internacional de Atividade Física (IPAQ): Estudo de Validade e reprodutibilidade no Brasil. Rev Bras Ativ Fís Saúde. 2001;6:6-18.

19. (Accessed: May 17, 2013).

20. Florindo AA, Latorre MR. Validação e reprodutibilidade do questionário de Baecke de avaliação da atividade física habitual em homens adultos. Rev Bras Med Esporte. 2003;9:121-128.

21. Ainsworth BE, Haskell WL, Whitt MC, et al. Compendium of physical activities: an update of activity codes and MET intensities. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2000;32:498-504.

22. Sposito AC, Caramelli B, Fonseca FA, et al. [IV Brazilian Guideline for Dyslipidemia and Atherosclerosis prevention: Department of Atherosclerosis of Brazilian Society of Cardiology]. Arq Bras Cardiol. 2007;88:2-19.

23. Heyward VH. ASEP methods recommendation: body composition assessment. JEP online. 2001;4:1-12.

24. D’Agostino RB Sr, Vasan RS, Pencina MJ, et al. AGeneral Cardiovascular Risk Profile for Use in Primary Care: The Framingham Heart Study. Circulation. 2008;117:743-753.

25. ATP III. Executive Summary of The Third Report of TheNational Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection. Evaluation. And Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol In Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). JAMA. 2002;285:2486-2497.

26. Libardi CA, Souza GV, Gápari AF, et al. Effects of concurrent training on interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor-alpha and C-reactive protein in middle-aged men. J Sports Sci. 2011;24:1573-1581.

27. Borg GAV, Noble BJ. Perceived exertion. In: Wilmore JH, editor. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews. Academic Press. 1974;2:131-153.

28. Ciolac EG, Bocchi EA, Bortolotto LA, et al. Effects of high-intensity aerobic interval training vs. moderate exercise on hemodynamic, metabolic and neuro-humoral abnormalities of young normotensive women at high familial risk for hypertension. Hypertens Res. 2010;33:836-843.

29. Haskell WL, Lee IM, Pate RR, et al. Physical activity and public health: updated recommendation for adultsfrom the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007;39:1423-1434.

30. Lee IM, Sesso HD, Oguma Y, Paffenbarger RS Jr. Relative intensity of physical activity and risk of coronary heart disease. Circulation. 2003;107:1110-1116.

31. Tanasescu M, Leitzmann MF, Rimm EB, Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, Hu FB. “Exercise type and intensity in relation to coronary heart disease in men. JAMA 2002; 288:1994-2000.

32. Ciolac EG. High-intensity interval training and hypertension: maximizing the benefits of exercise?. Am J Cardiovasc Dis. 2012; 2: 102-110.

58bff50f0e88250827876e66 mtprehab Articles
Links & Downloads

Man. Ther., Posturology Rehabil. J.

Share this page
Page Sections