Journal of Animal Behaviour and Biometeorology
Journal of Animal Behaviour and Biometeorology
Review Article Open Access

Scientific findings related to changes in vascular microcirculation using infrared thermography in the river buffalo

Aldo Bertoni, Daniel Mota-Rojas, Adolfo Álvarez-Macias, Patricia Mora-Medina, Isabel Guerrero-Legarreta, Armando Morales-Canela, Jocelyn Gómez-Prado, Nancy José-Pérez, Julio Martínez-Burnes

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Abstract The objective of this review article is to discuss and analyze the most important scientific findings from studies of vascular microcirculation in the river buffalo using infrared thermography (IRT), as well as the thermal windows utilized with this species. The goals are to define the scope and areas of opportunity for IRT use in evaluating physiological processes and identifying potential applications in reproductive events associated with andrological traits in males and the detection of estrus and udder health in females. IRT has allowed the development of diverse perspectives regarding the comparative physiology of events like thermogenesis, peripheral blood flow, respiratory physiology, and mechanisms that reduce body temperature. The case of the river buffalo is no exception. According to the information analyzed, the temperatures of the orbital area, muzzle, and vulva have proven efficient for evaluating thermal comfort, a particularly important aspect of this species given its limited thermoregulating capacity and constant exposure to extreme temperatures. Evaluating scrotal temperature has been revealed as an appropriate tool for evaluating semen quality, while the surface temperature of the udder is useful in assessing mammary development in female buffaloes, two aspects of great zootechnical importance. In future studies, IRT will play a fundamental role in enhancing our understanding of the river buffalo’s mechanisms of vascular microcirculation, with applications in productivity and behavior.


Bubalus bubalis, buffalo welfare, heat dissipation, thermal behaviors, thermal changes, thermal stress, thermoregulation


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