Artificial insemination in rabbits: factors that interfere in assessing its results
Understanding the rabbit’s sexual behavior and reproduction process is very important when using artificial insemination (AI) instead of natural mating in intensive rearing systems. Ovulation in rabbit females not occur spontaneously/ induced ovulatory animals, but it has to be induced through a neuro-hormonal reflex, which is stimulated during mating. The mating effect of satiety on specific measures of rabbit female sexual behavior has not been investigated. When applying AI, in the absence of a male, ovulation has to be induced by exogenous hormonal analogs. Bio-stimulation techniques are suggested as a substitute for hormones in that respect. One of the most effective approaches to distribute ejaculates from bucks of superior quality or genetic value is the systematic use of AI in intensive rabbit production. Rabbit’s sexual receptivity has a significant influence on fertility at insemination. In addition, a limitation factor for rabbit AI spread is related to their semen preservation. Fresh diluted semen has been used but its quality can be maintained only for a short period. However, there are few articles available have indicated the negativity of AI usage on rabbit, and the factors that can influence the AI process including the sexual desire behavior. Therefore, the objective of this review is to identify the important factors that directly or indirectly affect AI process success, meanwhile interfering with and/or relying on AI assessment.
Adams GP, Ratto MH, Silva ME, Carrasco RA (2016) Ovulation inducing factor (OIF/NGF) inseminal plasma: a review and update. Reproduction in Domestic Animals 51:4-17.
Aduku AO, Olukosi J (1990) Rabbit Management in the Tropics (Eds). Living Books Series, Au publications, Abuja, Nigeria, pp. 4-11.
Ajuogu PK, Ajayi FO (2010) Breeding responses of rabbits to artificial insemination in the humid tropics. Animal Production Research Advances 6:41-42.
Alsenosy AA, Abd El-Aziz AH (2019) Effect of Garlic Supplementation to Rabbit Semen Extender on Semen Metabolic and Oxidative Markers. Alexandria Journal of Veterinary Sciences 60:94-101.
Alvariño JM (2000) Reproductive performance of male rabbits. Proc., 7th World Rabbit Congress, Valencia, Spain: 13-35.
Alvariño M (2005) Manejo reprodutivo en cunicultura. Jornadas internacionais de cunicultura. UTAD – Vila Real, 135-144.
Anderson M, Taponema J, Koskinem E, Dahlbom M (2004) Effect of insemination with doses of 2 or 15 million frozen-thawed spermatozoa and semen deposition site on pregnancy rate in dairy cows. Theriogenology 61:1583-1588.
Araujo AG, Brandao FZ, Guedes MC, Pinaffi FL, Silva LA, Torres Filho RA, Ferreira AM (2013) Uterine blood flow evaluation after artificial insemination on different uterine sites in mares. Animal Reproduction 10:615.
Azard A (2006) Caractérisation des systémes de production cunicole francais et perspectives d’évolution. Cuniculture Magazine 33:78-85.
Bansal AK, Bilaspuri GS (2011) Impacts of oxidative stress and antioxidants on semen functions. Veterinary Medecine International. doi: 10.4061/2011/686137
Boiti C, Castellini M, Thau-Clément M, Besenfelder U, Liguori L, Renieri T, Pizzi F (2005) Guidelines for the handling of rabbit bucks and semen. World Rabbit Science 13:71-91.
Bonanno A, Mazza F, Alabiso M, Di Grigoli A, Alicata ML (2003) Effects of bio-stimulation induced by contact with buck on reproductive performance of rabbit does. Proc.: A.S.P.A. 15th Congress, Parma, Italian Journal of Animal Science 2:133-135.
Brun JM, Theau-Clement M, Bolet G (2002) The relationship between rabbit semen characteristics and reproductive performance after artificial insemination. Animal Reproduction Science 70:139-149.
Carluccio A, Robbe D, De Amicis I, Contri A, Tosi U, Russo F, Paoletti M (2004) Artificial insemination in rabbits: laboratory and field trial with three different semen extenders. World Rabbit Science 12:65-79.
Castellini C (1996) Recent advances in rabbit artificial insemination. Proc., 6th World Rabbit Congress, Toulouse, France: 13-26.
Castellini C, Del Bosco A, Cardinali R (2006) Long term effect of
post-weaning rhythm on the body fat and performance of rabbit doe. Reproduction Nutrition Development 46:195-204.
Castellini C, Dal Bosco A, Arias-Álvarez M, Lorenzo PL, Cardinalli R, Rebollar PG (2010) The main factors affecting the reproductive performance of rabbit does: a review. Animal Reproduction Science 122:174-182.
Cervantes MP, Palomino JM, Adams GP (2015) In vivo imaging in the rabbit as a model for the study of ovulation-inducing factors. Laboratory Animal 49:1-9.
Chen JLi, Simkin, ME, Yang, X, Foote RH (1989) Fertility of fresh and frozen rabbit semen inseminated at different times is indicative of male differences in capacitation time. Biology of Reproduction 41:848-853.
Chelmońska B, Jerysz E, Lukaszewicz E, Kowalczyk A (2007) The effect of proctodeal gland foam, and depth and frequency of artificial insemination on fertility and hatchability of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Science 31:171-178.
Conn PM, Crowley WF (1994) Gonadotropin-releasing hormone and its analogues. Annual Review of Medicine 45:391-405.
Cooper GW, Overstreet JW, Katz DF (1979) The motility of rabbit spermatozoa recovered from the female reproductive tract. Gamete Research 2:35-42.
Coy P, García-Vázquez FA, Visconti PE, Avilés M (2012) Roles of the oviduct in mammalian fertilization. Reproduction 144:649-660.
Daader AH, Yousef MK, Abdel-Samee AM, Abd El-Nour SA (2016) Recent trends in rabbit does reproductive management: special reference to hot regions. World Rabbit Science Association, Proc., 11th World Rabbit Congress, Qingdao, China.
da Costa EP, da Costa AH, Macedo GG, Pereira EC (2011) Artificial Insemination in Swine. In: Manafi M (ed) Artificial Insemination in Farm Animals, InTech, Croatia, pp 95-114.
Daniel N, Renard JP (2010) Artificial insemination in rabbits. Cold Spring Harbor Protocols 2010:53-58. doi: 10.1101/pdb.prot5358.
Di Iorio M, Manchisi A, Rocco M, Chrenek P, Laffaldano N (2014) Comparison of different extenders on the preservability of rabbit semen stored at 5°C for 72 hours. Italian Journal of Animal Science 13:710-714.
Dimitrova I, Angelov G, Teneva A, Uzev P (2009) Artificial insemination of rabbits. Biotechnology in Animal Husbandry 25:1249-1253.
Drobniz EZ, Overstreest JW (1992) Natural history of mammalian spermatozoa in the female reproductive tract. In: S.R. Mulligan (ed.) Oxford Reviews of Reproductive Biology, 14 Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford, pp. 1-45.
Echegaray-Torres JL, Olvera-Carmona JA, Salcedo-Baca R, Mendoza-Aendoza B (2004) Quality and fertility of preserved rabbit semen at 15 °C, in gelatin supplemented extender. Proc., 8th World Rabbit Congress, Puebla, Mexico.
Fischer B, Chavatte-Palmer P, Viebahn C, Navarrete Santos A, Duranthon V (2012) Rabbit as a reproductive model for human health. Reproduction 144:1-10
EL-Azzazi FE, Hegab IM, Hanafy AM (2017) Biostimulation and reproductive performance of artificially inseminated rabbit does (Oryctolagus cuniculus). World Rabbit Science 25:313-321.
El-Sabrout K (2017) Associations between single-nucleotide polymorphisms of melanocortin gene and sexual desire behavior in rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Journal of Veterinary Behavior 19:69-71. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jveb.2017.02.005
El-Seadawy IE, El-Nattat WS, El-Tohamy MM, Aziza SA, El-Senosy YA, Hussein AS (2017) Preservability of rabbit semen after chilled storage in tris based extender enriched with different concentrations of propolis ethanolic extract (PEE). Asian Pacific Journal of Reproduction 6:68-76.
El-Sherbieny MA, Kalaba ZM, El-Siefy EM, Ragab AA (2012) Freezing and Fertilizing Capacity of Frozen Rabbit Semen Extended with Gelatin Addition. Asian Journal of Animal Science 6:291-299.
Farrell PB, Foote RH, Simkin ME, Clegg ED, Wall RJ (1993) Relationship of semen quality, number of sperm inseminated and fertility in rabbits. Journal of Andrology 14:464-471.
FAWC (2001) Interim Report on the Animal Welfare Implications of Farm Assurance Schemes. Farm Animal Welfare Council; London, UK.
Frandson RD (1981) Anatomy and Physiology of farm animals, Lea and Fibiger. Philadelphia, USA.
Gado H, Mellado M, Salem, AZ, Zaragoza A, Seleem TS (2015) Semen characteristics, sexual hormones and libido of Hy-Plus rabbit bucks influenced by dietary multi-enzyme additive. World Rabbit Science 23:111-120.
Gerencsér Zs, Matics Zs, Nagy I, Princz Z, Orova Z, Biró-Németh E, Radnai I, Szendr Zs (2008) Effect of a light stimulation on the reproductive performance of rabbit does. 9th World Rabbit Congress, Verona - Italy, 371-374.
Gerencsér Zs, Matics Zs, Nagy I, Szendrő Zs (2011) Effect of light colour and reproductive rhythm on rabbit doe production. World Rabbit Science 19:161-170.
Gerencsér Zs, Matics Zs, Nagy I, Radnai I, Szendrő É, Szendrő Zs (2012) Effect of lighting program and nursing method on the production and nursing behaviour of rabbit does. World Rabbit Science 20:103-116.
González-Mariscal G, García Dalmán C, Jiménez A (2015) Biostimulation and nursing modify mating-induced c-FOS immunoreactivity in the female rabbit forebrain. Brain Research 1608:66-74.
Hamilton HH, Lukefahr SD, McNitt JI (1997) Maternal nest quality and its influence on litter survival and weaning performance in commercial rabbits. Journal of Animal Science 75:926-933.
Hammond J, Asdell SA (1926) The vitality of the spermatozoa in the male and female reproductive tracts. British Journal of Experimental Biology 4:155-185.
Hassan HE, Elamin KM, Yousif IA, Musa AM, Elkhairey MA, et al (2012) Evaluation of body weight and some morphometric traits at various ages in local rabbits of Sudan. Journal of Animal Science Advances 2:407-415.
Heba-Tallah AM, Osman MM, Elsheikh AI, ELNabititi AA (2016) Using rabbits as a model: artificial insemination as a tool to increase productive and reproductive traits. International Journal of Agriculture Innovations and Research 7:35-41.
Hegab IM, Kong SS, Yang SM, Mohamaden WI, Wei WH (2015) The ethological relevance of predator odors to induce changes in prey species. Acta Ethologica 18:1-9.
Hong S, Yu W, Kim Y, Cho J, Park M, Cho S, Yi H, Cho HJ, Shin H (2012) Development of a sperm preparation method for artificial insemination in rabbits. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 11:712-718.
Hudson R, Distel H (1990) Sensitivity of female rabbits to changes in photoperiod as measured by pheromone emission. Journal of Comparative Physiology 167:225-230.
Hussain A, Ahsan F (2005) The vagina as a route for systemic drug delivery. Journal of Controlled Release 103:301-313.
Iaffaldano N, Di Iorio M, Rosato, MP (2012) The cryoprotectant used, its concentration, and the equilibration time are critical for the successful cryopreservation of rabbit sperm: dimethylacetamide versus dimethylsulfoxide. Theriogenology 78:1381-1389.
Jentzer A (2008) Performances moyennes des élevages cunicoles en 2007. Présentation rapide des résultats renaceb et renalap. Cuniculture Magazine 35:39-44.
Jiménez P, Serrano-Meneses MA, Cuamatzi E, González-Mariscal G (2012) Analysis of sexual brhavior in male rabbits across successive tests leading to sexual exhaustion. World Rabbit Science 20:13-23.
Kim S, Lee YJ, Kim YJ (2011) Changes in sperm membrane and ROS following cryopreservation of liquid boar semen stored at 15 °C. Animal Reproduction Science 124:118-124.
Johinke D, de Graaf SP, Bathgate R (2015) The Effect of Sperm Concentration and Storage Vessel on Quercetin-Supplemented Rabbit Semen During Chilled Storage. Reproduction in Domestic Animals 50:567-573.
Rommers JM, Botti C, De Jong I, Brecchia G (2006) Performance and behaviour of rabbit does in a group-housing system with natural mating or artificial insemination. Reproduction Nutrition Development 46:677-687.
Kershaw-Young CM, Druart AD, Vaughan XJ, Maxwell WM (2012) Beta-Nerve growth factor is a major component of alpaca seminal plasma and induces ovulation in female alpacas. Reproduction, Fertility and Development 24:1093-1097.
Kumar D, Risam KS, Bhatt RS, Singh U (2013) Reproductive performance of different breeds of broiler rabbits under sub-temperate climatic conditions, World Rabbit Science 21:169-173.
Kurykin J, Jaakma U, Waldmann A, Jalakas M, Aidnik M, Majas L, Padrik P (2006) Low semen dose intracornual insemination of cows at fixed time after PGF2α treatment or at spontaneous estrus. Animal Reproduction Science 95:116-124.
Lavara R, Moce E, Lavara F, Viudes de Castro MP, Vicente JS (2005) Do parameters of seminal quality correlate with the results of on-farm inseminations in rabbits? Theriogenology 64:1130-1141.
Lawrence AB, Rushen J (1993) Stereotypic animal behaviour. fundamentals and applications to welfare. CAB International.
López-Gatius F, Sances G, Sancho M, Yániz J, Santolaria P, Gutiérrez R, Núñez M, Núñez J, Soler C (2005) Effect of solid storage at 15 °C on the subsequent motility and fertility of rabbit semen. Theriogenology 64:252-260.
Lorenzo PL, Garcıa-Garcıa RM, Arias-Alvarez M, Rebollar PG (2014) Reproductive and nutritional management on ovarian response and embryo quality on rabbit does. Reproduction in Domestic Animals 49:49-55.
Louis M (2009) Rabbit Biotechnology: Rabbit, Trnsqenesis, Cloning and Models Springer Science, Busines Media B.V. Springer Dordrecht Heidelberg, London, UK.
Lukefahr SD, Cheeke PR (1990) Rabbit project planning strategies for developing countries. (1) Practical considerations. Livestock Research for Rural Development 2:3.
Maertens L, Okerman F, De Groote G, Moermans R (1983) L’incidence de deux méthodes de traitement hormonal sur le comporment sexuel et la fertilité de jeunes lapines. Review Agriculture 36:167-175.
Maertens L, Luzi F (1995) Effect of diluent and storage time of rabbit semen on the fertility of does reared under two different lighting schedule. World Rabbit Science 3:27-34.
Mailafia S, Onakpa MM, Owoleke OE (2010) Problems and prospects of rabbit production in Nigeria, a review. Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences 3:20-25.
Marai IF, Habeeb AA, Gad AE (2002) Rabbits’ productive, reproductive and physiological performance traits as affected by heat stress: a review. Livestock Production Science 78:71-90.
Marco-Jiménez F, Lavara R, Jiménez-Trigos E, Vicente JS (2013) In vivo development of vitrified rabbit embryos. Effects of vitrification device, recipient genotype, and asynchrony. Theriogenology 79:1124-1129.
Marongiu ML, Dimauro C (2013) Preliminary study on factors influencing rabbit doe reproductive efficiency: Effect of parity, day of mating, and suckling on ovarian status and estrogen levels at day 6 of pregnancy. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research 77:126-130.
Matics Zs, Gerencsér Zs, Radnai I, Mikó A, Nagy I, Szendrő Zs (2012) Effect of different lighting schedules (16 L:8 D or 12 L:6 D) on reproductive performance of rabbit does. Proc., 10th World Rabbit Congress; Sharm El-Sheikh, Egypt.
McNitt JI (1992) Endocrinological approaches for commercial rabbit production. Journal of Applied Rabbit Research 15:364-397.
Mocé E, Vicente JS (2009) Rabbit sperm cryopreservation: A review. Animal Reproduction Science 110:1-24.
Morrel JM (1995) Artificial Insemination in Rabbits. British Veterinary 151:477-488.
Mousa-Balabel TM, Mohamed RA (2011) Effect of different photoperiods and melatonin treatment on rabbit reproductive performance. Veterinary Quarterly 31:165-171.
Ndors L, Ajuogu PK, Nyeche VN (2015) The assessment of artificial breeding pattern on fertility in rabbit does in the humid tropics. IOSR Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science 8:81-85.
Obasi KK, Lambe Z, Gbadamosi IT, Oyewopo AO (2016) A comparative study on the embryo-fetal development in rabbits after artificial insemination. Anatomy 10:106-113.
Ola SI, Oygbade MO (2012) Buck effect on rabbit oestrous, vulva colour, vaginal lumen cells and ovarian follicle populations. World Rabbit Science 20:71-79.
Ola SI, Olatunbosun OS (2013) Effect of buck presence on sexual receptivity and kindling performance of rabbit doe. Livestock Research for Rural Development 25:8.
Overstreet JW, Cooper GW (1978) Sperm transport in the reproductive tract of the female rabbit. I. The rapid transit phase of transport. Biology of Reproduction 19:101-114.
Paolicchi F, Urquieta B, Del Valle L, Bustos-Obregon E (1999) Biological activity of the seminal plasma of alpacas, stimulus for the production of LH by pituitary cells. Animal Reproduction Science 54:203-210.
Peiró R, Santacreu MA, Climent A, Blasco, A (2007) Early embryonic survival and embryo development in two lines of rabbits divergently selected for uterine capacity. Journal of Animal Science 85:1634-1639.
Piles M, Rafel O, Ramon J, Varona L (2004) Genetic parameters of fertility in two lines of rabbits with different reproductive potential. Journal of Animal Science 83:340-343.
Quintela LA, Peña AI, Vega MD, Gullón J, Prieto C, Barrio M, Becerra JJ, Herradón PG (2009) Reproductive Performance of Rabbit Does Artificially Inseminated via Intravaginal Administration of [des-Gly 10, D-Ala6]-LHRH Ethylamide as Ovulation Inductor. Reproduction in Domestic Animals 44:829-833.
Raga-Ayat A, El-Sherbieny MA, El-Siefy EM, Adel-Khalek AE (2012) Effect of gelatin supplementation on the quality and fertility of rabbit spermatozoa preserved at room or refrigerator temperature degrees. Journal of Animal and poultry Production 12:579-588.
Ratto MH, Huanca W, Adams GP (2010) Ovulation‐inducing factor: A protein component of llama seminal plasma. Reproductive Biology and Endocrin-ology 8:44.
Rebollar PG, Milanes A, Pereda N, Millan P, Cano P, Esquifino AI, Villarroel M, Silvan G, Lorenzo PL (2006) Oestrus synchronization of rabbit does at early post-partum by doe litter separation or ECG injection, Reproductive parameters and endocrine profiles. Animal Reproduction Science 93:218-230.
Rebollar PG (2011) Factors affecting efficacy of intravaginal ministration of GnRH analogues for ovulation induction in rabbit does. Giornate di Coniglicoltura ASIC, 35-45.
Renouf B, Klein S (2008) Identification des pratiques gagnantes des éleveurs les plus productifs en maternité. Journée Nationale du lapin de chair, 25 novembre 2008, pp. 53-62.
Richardson HN, Nelson AL, Ahmed EI, Parfitt DB, Romeo RD, Sisk CL (2004) Female pheromones stimulate release of luteinizing hormone and testosterone without altering GnRH mRNA in adult male Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). General and Comparative Endocrinology 138:211-217.
Rodel HG, Bora A, Kaiser J, Kaetzke P, Khaschei M, von Holst D (2004) Density-dependent reproduction in the European rabbit: a consequence of individual response and age-dependent reproductive performance. OIKOS 104:3.
Rodríguez-de Lara R, Fallas-Lopez M, Rangel-Santos R, Mariscal-Aguavo V, Martinez-Hernandez PA, Garcia-Muniz JG (2008) Influence of doe exposure ans season on reaction time and semen quality of male rabbits. Proc., 9th World Rabbit Congress, Verona, Italy.
Rodríguez-de Lara R, Noguez-Estrada J, Rangel-Santos R, García-Muñiz JG, Martínez-Hernández PA, Fallas-López M, Maldonado-Siman E (2010) Controlled doe exposure as biostimulation of buck rabbits. Animal Reproduction Science 122:270-275.
Rosato MP, Iaffaldano N (2011) Effect of chilling temperature on the long-term survival of rabbit spermatozoa held either in a tris-based or a jellified extender. Reproduction in Domestic Animals 46:301-308.
Rosato MP, Iaffaldano N (2013) Cryopreservation of rabbit semen: comparing the effects of different cryoprotectants, cryoprotectant-free vitrification, and the use of albumin plus osmoprotectants on sperm survival and fertility after standard vapor freezing and vitrification. Theriogenology 79:508-516.
Rowida MR, Osman RH, Mona HS (2015) Trials to improve the viability of rabbit semen at variable conditions of preservation using different diluents. Assiut Veterinary Medical Journal 61:160-168.
Rowida MR, Seleem TS, El-Kholy KH, Rawash ZM (2016) Effect of sperm concentration and site of insemination on conception rate of rabbits. Alexandria Journal of Veterinary Sciences 50:49-56.
Saleh SY, Attia KA, Fouad M, Nassar MM (2010) Effects of Multi-enzyme feed additive " Kemzyme" or/and Sodium Bentonite " as a feed Binder" on sexual activity and some fertility parameters of rabbit bucks. Journal of Agriculture Science 2:89-99.
Schmidova J, Milerski M, Svitakova A, Vostry L (2016) Effects of service ram on litter size in Romanov sheep. Small Ruminant Research 141:56-62.
Seleem TS (2003) Studies on productive and physiological characteristics of rabbits under different managerial conditions. Ph.D. Thesis, Faculty of Agric., Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt.
Seleem TS, Rowida MR (2005) Enzymatic activity and fertilizing ability of rabbit semen supplemented with nigella sativa extraction. The 4th Inter. Conf. on Rabbit Production in Hot Clim., Sharm El-Sheikh, Egypt, pp 183-189.
Shuji K (2009) Improvement of Rabbit Production. In: Rabbit Biotechnology, Louis-Marie H, Jianglin F (eds.), Springer, Netherlands, pp 2-13.
Silva M, Fernández A, Ulloa-Leal C, Adams GP, Berland MA, Ratto MH (2015) LH release and ovulatory response after intramuscular, intravenous, and intrauterine administration of β-nerve growth factor of seminal plasma origin in female llamas. Theriogenology 84:1096-1102.
Szendrő Zs, Rashwan AA, Bíró-Németh E, Radnai I (2006) Effect of vulva colour and turgidity on conception rate and litter size of rabbit does. Proc., 18th Hung. Conf. Rabbit Prod.; Kaposvár, Hungary: 123-126.
Szendrő Zs, Szendrő K, Dalle Zotte A (2012) Management of Reproduction on Small, Medium and Large Rabbit Farms: A Review. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 25:738-748.
Szendrő Zs, Gerencsér Zs, McNitt JI, Matics Zs (2016) Effect of lighting on rabbits and its role in rabbit production: A review. Livestock Science 183:12-18.
Tantasuparuk W, Manjarin R, Kirkwood RN (2011) Effect of site of sperm deposition on fertility when sows are inseminated with aged semen. Journal of Swine Health and Production 19:295-297.
Theau-Clément M, Boiti C, Bonanno A, Eiben Cs, Maertens L, Szendrő Zs (2006) Alternative methods for synchronisation of oestrus in lactating rabbit does. Recent advances in rabbit sciences (eds.). ILVO; Melle, Belgium: pp. 21-37.
Theau-Clément M (2007) Preparation of the rabbit doe to insemination: A review. World Rabbit Science 15:61-80.
Theau-Clément M (2008) Facteurs de réussite de l’insémination chez la lapine et méthodes d’induction de l’oestrus. INRA Production Animal 21:221-230.
Theau-Clément M, Bolet G, Fortun-Lamothe L, Brecchia G, Boiti C (2008) High plasmatic progesterone levels at insemination depress reproductive performance of rabbit does. Proc., 9th World Rabbit Congress, Verona, Italy: 459-463.
Theau-Clément M, Tircazes, A, Saleil G, Monniaux D, Bodin L, Brun JM (2011) Etude préliminaire de la variabilité du comportement d’œstrus de la lapine. Proc., 13èmes Journées de la Recherche Cunicole, 22-23 novembre 2011, Le Mans, France: 69-72.
Theau-Clément M, Weissman D, Davoust C, Galliot P, Souchet C, Bignon L, Fortun-Lamothe L (2012) Productivity and body composition of rabbit does subjected to three breeding systems. Proc., 10th World Rabbit Congress, Sharm El- Sheikh, Egypt: 401-405.
Theau-Clément M, Sécula A, Saleil G, Monniaux D, Brecchia G, Boiti C, Bodin L, Brun JM (2015) Genetic and non-Genetic factors affecting rabbit doe sexual receptivity as estimated from one Generation of divergent selection. World Rabbit Science 23:171-179.
Theau-Clément, M, Ailloud, E, Sanchez A, Saleil G (2016) Relationships between rabbit semen characteristics and fertilising ability after insemination. Animal 10:426-431.
Trocino A, Xiccato G (2006) Animal welfare in reared rabbits: a review with emphasis on housing systems. World Rabbit Science 14:77-93.
Tsai PS, Zhang L (2008) The emergence and loss of gonadotropin releasing hormone in protostomes: orthology, phylogeny, structure, and function. Biology of Reproduction 79:798-805.
Vella D, Donnelly TM (2012) Basic anatomy, physiology and husbandry. In: Ferrets, Rabbits, and Rodents: Clinical Medicine and Surgery. (2nd ed.), Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 157-161.
Vicente JS, Lavara R, Lavara F, Marco-Jimenez F, Viudes-de-Castro MP (2008) Rabbit reproductive performance after insemination with buserelin acetate extender. Livestock Science 115:153-157.
Zeidan EB, El-Zaiat EH, Rowida MR, El-Aasar TA (2008) Viability, acrosomal status and sex ratio of the centrifuged rabbit spermatozoa. American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences 4:318-325.
Zhao BT, Han D, Xu CL, Luo MJ, Chang ZL, Tan JH (2009) Protocol optimization for long-term liquid storage of goat semen in a chemically defined extender. Reproduction in Domestic Animals 44:865-872.