Journal of Animal Behaviour and Biometeorology
Journal of Animal Behaviour and Biometeorology
Review Article Open Access

Body expressions of emotions: does animals have it?

Miguel Machado, Iran José Oliveira da Silva

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The expression of emotions in animals is a source of information not very explored by researchers. It is necessary to know what emotions animals experience and how these emotions are expressed to the point that we can identify them. Within this approach, the use of techniques to measure body changes in animals according to the type of emotion experienced is one of the following paths. The ear and tail positioning was described as body areas subject to changes caused by emotions in animals. However, the position of the ears and tail may vary between species when it comes to the emotional state and therefore, it is not possible to establish a pattern. It is necessary to evaluate each species individually and the results cannot be transmitted from one species to another.  In addition, animals demonstrate different facial expressions associated with pain. Changes in facial expression in animals may also be related to emotions.


cattle, ears, facial expression, tail


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